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DOORASHOOYINKA MARAYKANKA IYO QAABKA LOO DOORTO MADAXWEYNAHA: W/Q: Eng. Xuseen Adan Cige (Deyr)”Akhri”
November 4, 2020 - Written by admin

DOORASHOOYINKA MARAYKANKA IYO QAABKA LOO DOORTO MADAXWEYNAHA:

W/Q: Eng. Xuseen Adan Cige (Deyr)

1. Yaa doorta M/weynaha Maraykanka? Qaabkeese loo doortaa?

Marka ay Codbixiyeyaasha Maraykanku u dareeraan tartanka doorashada Aqalka Cad si ay u doortaan Madaxweyne, sida dhabta ah, cidda ay codkooda sida tooska ah ugu dooranayaan ama ay ugu codaynayaan maaha qofka u taagan Murashaxa Madaxweynaha. Farsamo ahaan, codbixiyeyaasha Maraykanku si toos ah uma doortaan Madaxweynaha Dalka Maraykanka. Laakiin cida ay codbixiyeyaasha Maraykanku sida tooska ah u doortaan ama ay ugu codeeyaan waa qofka uu xisbigu u wakiishay gobolkaa isaga ah inuu matalo murashaxa Madaxweynaha, oo loo yaqaano “DOORTE ama ELECTOR”.

2. Sidee Gobollada loogu qaybiyaa tirada “DOORTAYAASHA” “ELECTORS” M/weynaha Maraykanka?

Guud ahaanba gobollada dalka Maraykanka oo dhan waxa jira 538 qof oo la yidhaahdo “DOORTAYAAL ama ELECTORS”, kuwaasoo matalaya ama ka wakiil ah Musharaxa Xisbigiisa ee dhammaanba Gobollada Maraykanka. Dabadeedna 538 qof oo loo yaqaano “GOLAHA DOORTAYAASHA” ama “ELECTORAL COLLEGE”, iyagoo ka wakiil ah dadka ku nool gobolkooda iyo rabitaankooda, ayaa waxay cod gacan taag ah ugu codeeyaan musharaxa noqon doona Madaxweynaha. Musharaxa hela 270 cod ayaa dabadeed noqda M/weynaha Maraykanka ee afarta sano ee soo socda, waxana uu xilka la wareegaa oo la dhaariyaa 20-ka January.

Waxa xusid mudan in
Gobol kasta oo ka tirsan Maraykanka waxa loo qoondeeyey lambar ama tiro sugan oo ah CODKA DOORASHADA “ELECTORAL VOTES”. Tiradaasi waxay ku xidhan tahay saddex arrimood:
a) Qaabka ay u shaxaysan yihiin Degmo Doorashooyinka gobolkaasi ee laga soo doorto mudaneyaasha Kongaraska,
b) Tirada Dadweynaha ku nool gobolkaa iyo
c) Inta mudane ee uu gobolkaasi ku leeyahay Goleyaasha Sharci Dejinta ee heer Fadaraal, sida Golaha Wakiilada oo lagu daray laba cod oo ah Aqalka Sare ama Senate-ka, tiradan labada cod ah waxa ka siman dhammaanba Gobollada dalka oo dhan, waana tirada mudaneyaasha ee uu Gobol walba ku leeyahay Aqalka Senate-ka.

3. Qaabkee ayaa loo soo xulaa ama loo magacaabaa “DOORTAYAASHA” “ELECTORS” M/weynaha Maraykanka?

Xisbiyada Siyaasadda iyo Gobollada Maraykanku way ku kala duwan yihiin qaabka ay u soo xushaan ama ay u soo magacaabaan Dadka iyagu dooranaya M/weynaha Maraykanka ee loo yaqaano “ELECTORS.” Laakiin guud ahaan laba hab midkood ayay Xisbiyadu u soo magacaabaan DOORTAYAASHA Madaxweynaha Maraykanka.

A. Doorashada ka hor, isla sanadkaa ay Doorashadu dhacayso, ayaa Xisbiyadu waxay Shir Weynahooda (Party Convention) ku doortaan DOORTAYAASHA Madaxweynaha ee Xisbigooda;
B. Qaabka labaad ee ay Xisbiyadu u doortaan “DOORTAYAASHA-ELECTORS” Madaxweynaha waxa u codeeya oo doorta Golaha Dhexe ee Xisbiga.

4. Sidee ayaa Musharaxiinta loogu qaybiyaa Tirada Codadka ee Gobollada Dalka?

Tartanka Doorashooyinka M/weynaha Maraykanka, Arrinta xiisaha badan
waxa weeyi: Cidda M/weynaha noqotaa maaha Murashaxa hela tirada ugu badan ee codka dadweynaha, lkn waxa Madaxweyne noqda Murashaxa hela 270 cod oo ah “GOLAHA DOORTAYAASHA” ama “ELECTORAL COLLEGE.” Doorashada Madaxweynaha Maraykanku waxay ku salaysan tahay aragtida odhanaysa: Cidda ku guulaysata codka Dadweynaha ee Gobolkaa ayaa wada qaadanaysa tirada
Codadka Doorashada “Electoral Votes” ee gobolkaa oo dhan (the winner takes all!).

5. Waa Maxay sababta ay Maraykanku u doorteen nidaamka “GOLAHA DOORTAYAASHA ama ELECTORAL COLLEGE”?

Dawladnimada Maraykanku waxay u dhisan tahay qaabab dhawr ah oo isku dhex jira oo hadana leh wada shaqayn iyo is-dheelli-tirba. Nidaamka Dawladnimo ee dalka Maraykanka waxa ka mid ah: nidaam ah Dawlad-goboleedyo federaal ah (Federation), nidaam Xukuumad Madaxtooyo ah (Presidential system), nidaam Dimuqraadiyadeed oo ah liberal (Liberal democracy), nidaam ah Jam. Federaal ah
(Federal Republic), Jam. Dastuuri ah (Constitutional Republic).

Haddaba, markii la aasaasay Dawladnimada Maraykanka, xisbiyada Siyaasadda waxa laga qabay shiki weyn, suurto galna ma ahayn in ay Xisbiyadu ay sameeyaan olole doorasho, may jirin isgaadhsiintan casriga ah, Gobollada Maraykanka badankooduna waxay aad ugu adkaayeen Xuquuqdooda aasaasiga ah ee dawlad-gobolnimo, sidoo kalena waxa si weyn looga cabsi qabay doorasho Madaxweyne oo ku salaysan codka tooska ah ee Dadweynaha (popular vote).

Sidoo kale, Qorayaashii Dastuurka Maraykanka ee sanadkii 1787, laba arrimoodba si cad bay u diideen:

� In ay Madaxweynaha doortaan Kongeresku; sababtoo ah waxay halis ku tahay kala xadaynta Awoodaha Dawladnimada;
� In ay guusha Madaxweynuhu ku salaysnaato codka tooska ah ee Dadweynaha(popular vote); sababta oo ah waxay keeni kartaa in Gobollada waaweyn ee dadkoodu badan yihiin ay si toos ah u dooran doonaan Murashaxa Gobolkooda, sidaana ay ku muquunin doonaa Gobollada yar yar.

Waxa iyana jirtay in Gobollada Koonfurta Maraykanka (oo haystay Adoomaha ugu badan ee Afrikaanka ah oo aan iyagu xilligaa lahayn Xuquuqda Codaynra Doorashada) ay si weyn u door bidayeen nidaamka ay Dawlad Goboleedyada la siinayo tiro ah Codadka Doorashada (Electoral Votes).

6. Haddaba waa maxay faa’iidada nidaamka “Golaha Doortayaasha ama Electoral College”?

Nidaamka “Golaha Doortayaasha”-Madaxweynaha Maraykanka (Electoral College), in kasta oo uu yahay nidaam ay ku jirto cadaalad darro, maadaama Murashaxa ku guulaysta codka ugu badan ee shacabku aanu ahayn ka noqonaya Madaxweynaha Maraykanka; haddana waa Nidaam ay ummadda Maraykanku weli ku dhaqmaan isla markaana ay u hayaan ixtiraam taasoo salka ku haysa mudnaanta Taariikhiga ah ee uu nidaamkani leeyahay.

Dhinaca kale, waa nidaam Gobollada yar yar ee Maraykanka siinaya mudnaan gaar ah iyo culays ka ilaalinaya in loo awood sheegto ama la muquuniyo, isla markaana ku salaysan hab-maamulka kormeerka iyo isla xisaabtanka ee uu jideeyey Dastuurka Maraykanku.
Sidoo kale, Nidaamka Golaha Doortayaashu waa nidaam ku khasbaya in Murashax uu ka helo codad dhammaanba Gobollada dalka.

W/Q: W/Q: Eng. Xuseen Adan Cige (Deyr);
• Qoraa iyo Siyaasi Madaxbanaan;

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